Question: How is Zakat ul-Mal given for wealth which I collected and a year has passed on it. But I do not know which part of the wealth a year was completed on and which part a year was not completed? And is Zakat, no matter what type it is, given in my land or to the Kingdom [of Saudi Arabia]? Considering I work in the Kingdom but I am not from it?
Answer: “This question has two parts. The first part: he says he has wealth which he collected and they are not in the same level in terms of [how] they reached him. He does not know which part a year has passed on it and which part a year did not pass on it. The answer to this is that we say: if he has the Nisaab amount with him for a year and this wealth generated profit throughout the year, then the profit follows the principle wealth even if a year did not pass on it. As for if this new amount is not profit which is generated from the principal wealth, like an employee or worker who receives his salary every month and he collects a amount of wealth, some of it a year has passed on it and some of it a year did not pass on it. Then to consider a year for every type of wealth [he gathered] with him is difficult. If he makes a month from the year, like Ramadan, as an appointed time [to give Zakat], then he should give Zakat for what he gathered of wealth from what a year has passed on it and what a year did not pass on it. So whatever a year has passed on it, there is no harm and whatever a year did not pass on it, then giving Zakat in advance is permissible due to a correct reason. So by that the issue is resolved and his responsibility is fulfilled inshallah.
As for the second part of the question, regarding the place to give Zakat, then the jurists mention that the place to give Zakat is the land which the wealth is in due to the statement of the Prophet (ﷺ):
فترد على فقرائهم
Given to the poor among them.
[Reported by Bukhari in his Saheeh (2/108) from the Hadith of Ibn ‘Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him)]
So the land which your wealth is in, you give its Zakat to the poor of that land. It is permissible to transfer Zakat due to a correct reason to another nearby land, just like if there is no poor people in the land which the wealth is in. It is permissible to transfer it to another place which there are poor people. You should observe this. If there are poor people and those who deserve it in the land which the wealth is in, then give the Zakatul Mal in the land of the wealth. If there are no poor people nor those who deserve it in the land which the wealth is in, then he transfers it to closest land to him. And Allah, the Exalted knows best”.
[al-Muntaqa min Fatawa al-Fawzan question (pg.775-776)]
The Permanent Committee said something similar. See here: https://www.alifta.net/Fatawa/FatawaSubjects.aspx?languagename=en&View=Page&HajjEntryID=0&HajjEntryName=&RamadanEntryID=0&RamadanEntryName=&NodeID=1102&PageID=13195&SectionID=7&SubjectPageTitlesID=13830&MarkIndex=15&0#IsthereZakah(obligatorycharity)
Faisal bin Abdul Qaadir bin Hassan